Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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   2008| July-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 1, 2008

 
 
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PRACTITIONER SECTION
Emergency treatment of a snake bite: Pearls from literature
Syed Moied Ahmed, Mohib Ahmed, Abu Nadeem, Jyotsna Mahajan, Adarash Choudhary, Jyotishka Pal
July-December 2008, 1(2):97-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43190  PMID:19561988
Snake bite is a well-known occupational hazard amongst farmers, plantation workers, and other outdoor workers and results in much morbidity and mortality throughout the world. This occupational hazard is no more an issue restricted to a particular part of the world; it has become a global issue. Accurate statistics of the incidence of snakebite and its morbidity and mortality throughout the world does not exist; however, it is certain to be higher than what is reported. This is because even today most of the victims initially approach traditional healers for treatment and many are not even registered in the hospital. Hence, registering such patients is an important goal if we are to have accurate statistics and reduce the morbidity and mortality due to snakebite. World Health Organization/South East Asian Region Organisation (WHO/SEARO) has published guidelines, specific for the South East Asian region, for the clinical management of snakebites. The same guidelines may be applied for managing snakebite patients in other parts of the world also, since no other professional body has come up with any other evidence-based guidelines. In this article we highlight the incidence and clinical features of different types of snakebite and the management guidelines as per the WHO/SEARO recommendation.
  36 24,933 1,161
INTERDISCIPLINARY FOCUS
Mucormycosis in immunochallenged patients
Jane Pak, Veronica T Tucci, Albert L Vincent, Ramon L Sandin, John N Greene
July-December 2008, 1(2):106-113
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.42203  PMID:19561989
Mucorales species are deadly opportunistic fungi with a rapidly invasive nature. A rare disease, mucormycosis is most commonly reported in patients with diabetes mellitus, because the favorable carbohydrate-rich environment allows the Mucorales fungi to flourish, especially in the setting of ketoacidosis. However, case reports over the past 20 years show that a growing number of cases of mucormycosis are occurring during treatment following bone marrow transplants (BMT) and hematological malignancies (HM) such as leukemia and lymphoma. This is due to the prolonged treatment of these patients with steroids and immunosuppressive agents. Liposomal amphotericin B treatment and posaconazole are two pharmacologic agents that seem to be effective against mucormycosis, but the inherently rapid onset and course of the disease, in conjunction with the difficulty in correctly identifying it, hinder prompt institution of appropriate antifungal therapy. This review of the literature discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of mucormycosis among the BMT and HM populations.
  27 10,298 313
SYMPOSIUM
Pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia
James R Meredith, Kelly P O'Keefe, Sagar Galwankar
July-December 2008, 1(2):88-96
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43189  PMID:19561987
Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is an evolving field in pediatric emergency medicine. As new drugs breach the boundaries of anesthesia in the Pediatric Emergency Department, parents, patients, and physicians are finding new and more satisfactory methods of sedation. Short acting, rapid onset agents with little or no lingering effects and improved safety profiles are replacing archaic regimens. This article discusses the warning signs and areas of a patient's medical history that are particularly pertinent to procedural sedation and the drugs used. The necessary equipment is detailed to provide the groundwork for implementing safe sedation in children. It is important for practitioners to familiarize themselves with a select few of the PSA drugs, rather than the entire list of sedatives. Those agents most relevant to PSA in the pediatric emergency department are presented.
  11 9,574 575
EVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE
Military anti-shock garment: Historical relic or a device with unrealized potential?
Fatimah Lateef, Tan Kelvin
July-December 2008, 1(2):63-69
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43181  PMID:19561982
Military anti-shock trousers represents a medical device which has engendered very divergent views, even up to today. From the time the concept was formulated in 1903 by surgeon George W Crile, there have been significant swings in opinion and evidence. The guidelines, where available, are often kept relatively general and cautious. As a spin-off to the mechanism and technology, several alternative devices have been proposed or developed over the years. This include the auto-transfusion torniquet, the non pneumatic anti-shock garment (Life Wrap) and the non inflatable antishock garment, which are discussed in this paper.
  9 10,115 295
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical profile of venomous snake bites in north Indian military hospital
Jasjit Singh, Sanjeev Bhoi, Vineet Gupta, Ashish Goel
July-December 2008, 1(2):78-80
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43184  PMID:19561985
Snakebite is an environmental hazard associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case series of venomous snakebites in a military operational area of north India. Of 33 cases of snake bites presenting to the military hospital, 21 patients were envenomated. The median age of patients was 24 years; all were men. All of the envenomations were neurotoxic in nature. Abdominal pain (91%), headache (86%), dysphagia (86%), ptosis (77%), diplopia (72%), blurred vision (72%), dyspnea (67%), and vomiting (62%) were the predominant clinical presentation. Polyvalent AntiSnakeVenom (ASV) [mean 180 ml; range 90-320 ml] was given to all patients with systemic manifestations, and repeated as needed. Eleven (52%) patients received neostigmine with glycopyrrolate to counter cholinergic effects. Two patients were given ventilatory support. The average time of recovery from envenomation was 16 hours after administration of ASV. All patients recovered without sequelae. Soldiers during military exercise are vulnerable to snakebites. Neurotoxic snakebites predominate in our study and usually present with autonomic features along with headache, abdominal pain, ptosis, diplopia and dysphasia. Preventive measures to minimize snake bites and planned treatment regimens should be emphasized among medical and military personnel deployed in the field operations.
  8 6,637 257
BASIC SCIENCES REVIEW
Alcohol, burn injury, and the intestine
Mashkoor A Choudhry, Irshad H Chaudry
July-December 2008, 1(2):81-87
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43187  PMID:19561986
A significant number of burn and other traumatic injuries are reported to occur under the influence of alcohol (EtOH) intoxication. Despite this overwhelming association between EtOH intoxication and injury, relatively little attention has been paid to determining the role of EtOH in post-injury pathogenesis. This article reviews studies which have evaluated the impact of EtOH on post-burn intestinal immunity and barrier functions. The findings from these studies suggest that while a smaller burn injury by itself may not have an adverse effect on host defense, when combined with prior EtOH intoxication it may become detrimental. Experimental data from our laboratory further supports the notion that EtOH intoxication before burn injury suppresses intestinal immune defense, impairs gut barrier functions, and increases bacterial growth. This results in increased bacterial translocation which may contribute to post injury pathogenesis. Altogether, the studies reviewed in this article suggest that EtOH intoxication at the time of injury is a risk factor, and therefore blood EtOH should be checked in burn/trauma patients at the time of hospital admission.
  6 6,213 233
LETTERS TO EDITOR
The potential adverse patient effects of ambulance ramping, a relatively new problem at the interface between prehospital and ED care
Joseph YS Ting
July-December 2008, 1(2):129-129
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43201  PMID:19561996
  6 4,725 156
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Are trauma patients better off in a trauma ICU?
Therese M Duane, Ivatury R Rao, Michael B Aboutanos, Luke G Wolfe, Ajai K Malhotra
July-December 2008, 1(2):74-77
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43183  PMID:19561984
There is very little data on the value of specialized intensive care unit (ICU) care in the literature. To determine if specialize ICU care for the trauma patient improved outcomes in this patient population. Level I Trauma Center Compared outcomes of trauma patients treated in a surgical trauma ICU (STICU) to those treated in non- trauma ICUs (non-STICU). Retrospective review of trauma registry data. Statistical Analysis: Wilcoxon Rank Test , Fischer's Exact test, logistic regression. There were 1146 STICU patients compared to 1475 non-STICU. In all ISS groups there were more penetrating trauma patients in the STICU (32.54% STICU vs. 18.15% non-STICU, P <0.0001 (ISS< 15)), (21.03% STICU vs. 12.98% non-STICU, P =0.0074 (ISS between 15-25)), and (19.42% STICU vs. 11.35% non-STICU, P =0.0026 (ISS> 25)). All groups had similar lengths of stay. The blunt trauma patients were sicker in the STICU (20.8 ISS 12.2 STICU vs. 19.7 ISS 11.9 non-STICU, P =0.03) yet had similar outcomes to the non-STICU group. Logistic regression identified penetrating trauma and not ICU location as a predictor of mortality. Sicker STICU patients do as well as less injured non-STICU patients. Severely injured patients should be preferentially treated in a STICU where they are better equipped to care for the complex multi-trauma patient. All patients, regardless of location, do well when their management is guided by a surgical critical care team.
  6 6,280 221
CASE REPORTS
Complication following primary repair of a penetrating bull horn injury to the trachea
Mozaffar M Khan, Syed Moied Ahmed, Mohd Shakeel, Adil Hasan, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Masood M Siddiqi
July-December 2008, 1(2):123-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43199  PMID:19561992
A 22-year-old male patient was admitted to the casualty with a bull horn injury in the lower zone of the neck in the midline. The patient was conscious and distressed but hemodynamically stable. Local examination revealed a lacerated wound. He underwent emergency primary repair of the wound under halothane anesthesia; intubation was done keeping in readiness all preparations for difficult airway management. Postoperatively, elective controlled ventilation was performed with continuous infusion of muscle relaxant. After approximately 8 hours of controlled ventilation, the syringe pump failed; this initially went unnoticed and made the patient cough and buck on the tube. Infusion was restarted after a bolus dose of vecuronium bromide intravenously but, meanwhile, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema in the neck. He was immediately transferred to the operating room, where exploration of the surgical site revealed dehiscence of the tracheal wound; this had led to the subcutaneous emphysema. Repair of the tracheal wound dehiscence was not possible due to both lack of space and lack of tissue for apposition. Hence, a tracheostomy tube was inserted through the tracheal wound and the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit for elective controlled ventilation. The patient was weaned off the ventilator within 24 h and transferred to the surgical ward on spontaneous ventilation with the tracheostomy tube in situ. The size of the patient's tracheostomy tube was reduced gradually by the serial exchange method. The wound ultimately healed with minimal scarring.
  4 4,751 119
Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess
Shraddha Jain, Prakash S Nagpure, Roohie Singh, Deepika Garg
July-December 2008, 1(2):114-118
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43197  PMID:19561990
Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp . The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting.
  3 5,980 211
EDITORIAL
What's new in emergencies, trauma, and shock? Snake envenomation and organophosphate poisoning in the emergency department
Praveen Aggarwal, Nayer Jamshed
July-December 2008, 1(2):59-62
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43180  PMID:19561981
  2 5,250 376
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dermal absorption of a dilute aqueous solution of malathion
John E Scharf, Giffe T Johnson, Stephen Casey Harbison, James D McCluskey, Raymond D Harbison
July-December 2008, 1(2):70-73
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43182  PMID:19561983
Malathion is an organophosphate pesticide commonly used on field crops, fruit trees, livestock, agriculture, and for mosquito and medfly control. Aerial applications can result in solubilized malathion in swimming pools and other recreational waters that may come into contact with human skin. To evaluate the human skin absorption of malathion for the assessment of risk associated with human exposures to aqueous solutions, human volunteers were selected and exposed to aqueous solutions of malathion. Participants submerged their arms and hands in twenty liters of dilute malathion solution in either a stagnant or stirred state. The "disappearance method" was applied by measuring malathion concentrations in the water before and after human exposure for various periods of time. No measurable skin absorption was detected in 42% of the participants; the remaining 58% of participants measured minimal absorbed doses of malathion. Analyzing these results through the Hazard Index model for recreational swimmer and bather exposure levels typically measured in contaminated swimming pools and surface waters after bait application indicated that these exposures are an order of magnitude less than a minimal dose known to result in a measurable change in acetylcholinesterase activity. It is concluded that exposure to aqueous malathion in recreational waters following aerial bait applications is not appreciably absorbed, does not result in an effective dose, and therefore is not a public health hazard.
  2 5,068 159
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Head injuries in a rural setup: Challenges and potential solutions
Amit Agrawal, Sudhakar R Joharapurkar, Keshav B Golhar, Vinay V Shahapurkar, Sankalp Dwivedi, Abhuday Meghe
July-December 2008, 1(2):129-130
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43202  PMID:19561995
  1 3,414 105
PICTORIAL EDUCATION
ECG J waves
Matt Sisko, Bradley F Peckler
July-December 2008, 1(2):128-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43200  PMID:19561994
  1 5,951 256
CASE REPORTS
Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome mimicking severe sepsis
Talya Spivack, Rashmi Chawla, Paul E Marik
July-December 2008, 1(2):119-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.43198  PMID:19561991
Severe sepsis is amongst the most common reasons for admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) throughout the world and is a common cause of death. The diagnosis of sepsis is usually straightforward, being based on a constellation of clinical and laboratory features. Noninfectious disorders, including pancreatitis, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders, may cause a systemic inflammatory response that mimics sepsis. We present the case of a 32-year-old male with Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome who presented to the ICU with features of severe sepsis which progressed to multisystem organ failure and death despite aggressive supportive measures.
  - 10,230 305
PICTORIAL EDUCATION
The value of MR imaging in posttraumatic diffuse axonal injury
Luigi Beretta, Marco Gemma, Nicoletta Anzalone
July-December 2008, 1(2):126-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.42204  PMID:19561993
  - 5,019 239
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