Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 190-191
Mechanisms and patterns of animal-related injuries in patients admitted to a major trauma center in central India

1 Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Trauma Care Center, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India

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Date of Submission30-Aug-2020
Date of Acceptance16-Sep-2020
Date of Web Publication27-Apr-2021

How to cite this article:
M Quraishi AH, Damdoo A, Srinivasan S, Umare G, Tongse P. Mechanisms and patterns of animal-related injuries in patients admitted to a major trauma center in central India. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2021;14:190-1

How to cite this URL:
M Quraishi AH, Damdoo A, Srinivasan S, Umare G, Tongse P. Mechanisms and patterns of animal-related injuries in patients admitted to a major trauma center in central India. J Emerg Trauma Shock [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 10];14:190-1. Available from:


It is known that deforestation has increased animal–human conflict, leading to serious injuries that cause morbidity and mortality. To find patterns and mechanisms of animal-related injuries, we conducted a retrospective observational study from September 2017 to June 2020 at our trauma center. Individuals having injuries caused by an animal attack were included in the study. Patients of all age groups and all genders were included. Species of the animal causing injury, site, and type of injury and mechanism and pattern of injury were recorded. Outcomes and mortality figures were also recorded.

There were 53 patients who suffered animal-related injuries, which included 44 males (83.01%) and 9 females (16.98%) with male-to-female ratio of 4.8:1. In our study, animal-related injuries were found to be most common in the third and fourth decades of life. A bull attack was the most commonly encountered injury in the present study, followed by wild boar and bear attacks. Mechanism and pattern of injuries were typical in occurrence; bull and deer used their horns while the rest attacked by biting and scratching with nails, leading to avulsions and lacerations. The bears attacked the victim's head and face region using their claws causing lacerations and decollement. Whereas wild boar typically attacked the lower half of the victim's body in most cases [Table 1].
Table 1: Species of animal with pattern and mechanism of injury

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The most common injuries were musculoskeletal followed by head and face. Out of all cases, 35 were of blunt trauma, 14 of penetrating trauma, and 4 were a combination of both. Most of the patients had good outcomes. Complications were seen in the form of surgical site infection in five patients. Mortality occurred in seven patients, which comprised spinal injuries, abdominal injuries, and blunt trauma to the chest (four patients died due to ARDS, 1 due to aspiration pneumonitis, and two patients due to septicemia).

The mechanism, site, and pattern of injury are known to be unique to certain animal species. In this study, wild boar typically attacked on the upper thigh and below the waist with the help of sharp canines, i.e., tusk resulting in penetrating injury, which was also noted in other studies.[1] Similarly, bears typically attacked head, face, and neck region with the help of their claws causing severe lacerations and decollement, which is comparable to the mechanism of injury recorded in other studies.[2],[3] In this study, bull attack was typically associated with penetrating injury to the abdomen, with multiple perforations of the bowel, a similar association has been found in other studies.[4]

Knowledge of the pattern of injury inflicted by animals can help in devising preventive measures. For example, protection gears such as suitable head gears and face shields for bears and thigh guards and protective wild boar pants for wild boars can be useful to minimize the damage in areas where they are expected. Other specific measures to prevent human–animal conflict should be planned and implemented to reduce these serious injuries which are often fatal.

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Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

Tumram NK, Dhawne SG, Ambade VN, Dixit PG. Fatal tusk injuries from a wild boar attack. Med Leg J 2015;83:54-6.  Back to cited text no. 1
Mize CH, Dorji L, Zafren K. Emergency airways after Himalayan black bear attacks in Bhutan. Wilderness Environ Med 2019;30:421-4.  Back to cited text no. 2
Oshima T, Ohtani M, Mimasaka S. Injury patterns of fatal bear attacks in Japan: A description of seven cases. Forensic Sci Int 2018;286:e14-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Dogan KH, Demirci S, Erkol Z, Sunam GS, Kucukkartallar T. Injuries and deaths occurring as a result of bull attack. J Agromedicine 2008;13:191-6.  Back to cited text no. 4

Correspondence Address:
Abdul Haque M Quraishi
Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_131_20

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