Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 128-135

Pediatric mortality at pediatric versus adult trauma centers

Department of Surgery, Brookdale Hospital and Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA

Correspondence Address:
Ghayth Alawwa
Department of Surgery, Room 126 Strausberg, Brookdale Hospital and Medical Center, One Brookdale Plaza, Brooklyn, New York 11212
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_11_20

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Introduction: Pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) were created to address the unique needs of injured children with the expectation that outcomes would be improved. However, prior studies to evaluate the impact of PTCs have had conflicting results. Our study was conducted to further clarify this question. We hypothesize that severely injured children ≤ 14 years of age have better outcomes at PTCs and that better survival may be due to higher emergency department (ED) survival rates than at adult trauma centers (ATCs). Methods: A retrospective analysis of severely injured children (ISS>15) ≤18 years of age entered into the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) between 2011 and 2012 was performed. Subjects were stratified into 2 age cohorts; young children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-18 years). Primary outcomes were emergency department (ED) and in-patient (IP) mortality. Secondary outcomes included in-hospital complications, hospital and ICU length of stay, and ventilator days. Outcome differences were assessed using multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression analyses. Results: A total of 10,028 children were included. Median ISS was 22 (Interquartile range 17-29). Adjusting for confounders on multivariate analysis, children ≤ 14 had lower odds of ED (0.42[CI 0.25-0.71], p=0.001) and IP mortality (0.73[CI 0.5-0.9], p=0.02) at PTCs. There were no differences in odds of ED mortality (0.81 [CI 0.5-1.3], p=0.4) or IP mortality (1.01 [CI 0.8-1.2], p=0.88) for adolescents between centers. There were no differences in complication rates between PTCs and ATCs (OR 0.86 [CI 0.69-1.06], p=1.7) but children were more likely to be discharged to home and have more ICU and ventilator free days if treated at a PTC. Conclusion: Young children but not adolescents have better ED survival at PTCs compared to ATCs.

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