Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 92-97

Adrenal gland trauma: An observational descriptive analysis from a level 1-trauma center

1 Department of Surgery, Trauma and Vascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
2 Department of Surgery, Trauma Surgery, Hamad General Hospital, Doha, Qatar
3 Department of Surgery Clinical Research, Trauma and Vascular Surgery, Hamad General Hospital; Department of Clinical Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, Doha, Qatar

Correspondence Address:
Ayman El-Menyar
Department of Surgery, Trauma and Vascular Surgery, Clinical Research, Hamad General Hospital, P.O. Box: 3050, Doha
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_63_20

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Introduction: We aimed to describe the presentation, classification, and outcome of traumatic adrenal injury in a single Level-1 trauma center. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to include all patients identified to have adrenal trauma from 2011 to 2014. Data were retrieved from charts and electronic medical records for all patients with adrenal trauma with a 3-year follow-up for mortality. Results: A total of 116 patients who were admitted with adrenal injury (12.9% of abdominal trauma and 20% of total solid organ injury admissions) were included in the study, 104 were males and 12 were females. In our population, 86% of adrenal injuries involved the right adrenal gland, 14% in the left, and 12% had bilateral injuries. The majority of associated injuries were rib fractures accounting for 42%, while 37% had associated lung injuries, and 35% had head injuries. As per the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma classification, 46% of adrenal traumas were grade one. Of all adrenal trauma, 25 patients were operated (21%), whereas the majority were admitted to the intensive care unit or surgical ward. Surgical interventions were indicated for associated injury to the bowel, spleen, diaphragm, mesentery, kidneys, or inferior vena cava. One patient underwent angioembolization of the adrenal vessels due to contrast leak. The mortality rate was 14.6%, and no further mortality was reported during a 3-year follow-up. On multivariable analysis, admission systolic blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, and injury severity score were predictors of hospital mortality. Conclusions: Adrenal injury is not rare and often unilateral with right-sided predominance. Associated injuries influence the clinical findings, management, and outcome. Surgical interventions are rarely required except for few cases of active bleeding. Long-term outcome postadrenal injury is still not well studied.

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