Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-91

Cattle-related trauma: A 5-year retrospective review in a adult major trauma center

1 Robert Jones Agnes Hunt Hospital, Gobowen, England
2 Royal Stoke University Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent, England

Correspondence Address:
John-Henry Rhind
Robert Jones Agnes Hunt Hospital, Gobowen
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_92_20

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Introduction: Bovine injuries are a common and significant cause of trauma, often requiring admission and operative treatment. We review all bovine-related injuries over 5 years, both emergency and general practitioner (GP) referrals at an adult major trauma center in England. Methods: Retrospective evaluation was undertaken using the keywords through radiology referrals and hospital admissions speciality databases. By searching patient notes, demographics were collected as well as the mechanism and the situation of injury; trauma scores were calculated using: injury severity score (ISS) and probability of survival (Ps19). The results were divided into emergency patients and GP referrals. Results: Sixty-seven patients were identified retrospectively over 5 years, 44 emergency patients (including 23 major traumas), and 23 GP referrals. Combined (emergency and GP) mean age 52 years old; 67% male; and mean ISS 11. Most common combined mechanism of injury, kicked (n = 23). In emergency patients, trampling injuries were the most common. Eighty-six percent of the trampled patients were major traumas and associated with increased ISS (mean 13). Indirect injuries mainly involved farm gates (92%). Seventy-three percent of bull-related injuries were major traumas and had increased ISS scores (mean 17). Orthopaedics was the most common admitting speciality followed by cardiothoracic and neurosurgery. In emergency patients, fractures were the most common primary injury (n = 20), upper limb followed by spine. In GP, soft-tissue injuries were the most common primary injury. Seventy percent of the emergency referrals required admission and 50% operations. Fracture fixation was the most common operative procedure. Only, one GP referral required an operation. There were significant delays in GP patients presenting. Two patients had a Ps19 score <90. There were two mortalities. Conclusion: Cattle-related injuries are a significant cause of severe morbidity and mortality. They are under-reported. Patterns of injury are similar to high-velocity road traffic collisions and bull-related injuries or trampling in particular, should alert the clinician to more significant trauma. Farm gates are a frequent cause of trauma associated with cattle. GP referrals with ongoing symptoms for more than 2 weeks seeking medical advice should alert the clinician to a more serious diagnosis.

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