Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 87-94

Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest diagnosed via detailed examinations including perimortem computed tomography

Critical Care and Emergency Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Japan

Correspondence Address:
Yoshihiro Moriwaki
Critical Care and Emergency Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57 Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.110752

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Context: The spectrum of the etiology of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA) has not been established. We have performed perimortem computed tomography (CT) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aims: To clarify the incidence of non-cardiac etiology (NCE), actual distribution of the causes of OHCPA via perimortem CT and its usefulness. Settings and Design: Population-based observational case series study. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1846 consecutive OHCPA cases and divided them into two groups: 370 showing an obvious cause of OHCPA with NCE (trauma, neck hanging, terminal stage of malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding) and others. Results: Of a total OHCPA, perimortem CT was performed in 57.5% and 62.5% were finally diagnosed as NCE: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) 8.07%, pulmonary thrombo-embolization (PTE) 1.46%, hypoxia due to pneumonia 5.25%, asthma and acute worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.06%, cerebrovascular disorder (CVD) 4.48%, airway obstruction 7.64%, and submersion 5.63%. The rates of patients who survived to hospital discharge were 6-14% in patients with NCE. Out of the 1476 cases excluding obvious NCE of OHCPA, 66.3% underwent perimortem CT, 14.6% of cases without obvious NCE and 22.1% of cases with perimortem CT were confirmed as having some NCE. Conclusions: Of the total OHCPA the incidences of NCE was 62.5%; the leading etiologies were AAD, airway obstruction, submersion, hypoxia and CVD. The rates of cases converted from cardiac etiology to NCE using perimortem CT were 14.6% of cases without an obvious NCE.

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