Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-28

Incidence, clinical predictors and outcome of acute renal failure among North Indian trauma patients

1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Biostatistics, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Anaesthesia, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Arulselvi Subramanian
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.106321

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Context: There is a need for identifying risk factors aggravating development of acute renal failure after attaining trauma and defining new parameters for better assessment and management. Aim of the study was to determine the incidence of acute renal failure among trauma patients, and its correlation with various laboratory and clinical parameters recorded at the time of admission and in-hospital mortality. Subjects and Methods: The retrospective cohort study included admitted 208 trauma patients over a period of one year. 135 trauma patients at the serum creatinine level >2.0 mg/dL were enrolled in under the group of acute renal failure. 73 patients who had normal creatinine level made the control group. They were further assessed with clinical details and laboratory investigations. Results: Incidence of acute renal failure was 3.1%. There were 118 (87.4%) males and average length of stay was 9 (1, 83) days. Severity of injury (ISS, GCS) was relatively more among the renal failure group. Renal failure was transient in 35 (25.9%) patients. They had higher incidence of bone fracture (54.0%) (P = 0.04). Statistically significant association was observed between patients with head trauma and mortality 72 (59.0%) (P = 0.001). Prevalence of septic 24 (59.7%) and hemorrhagic 9 (7.4%) shock affected the renal failure group. Conclusion: Trauma patients at the urea level >50 mg/dL, ISS >24 on the first day of admission had 23 times and 7 times the risk of developing renal failure. Similarly, patients with hepatic dysfunction and pulmonary dysfunction were 12 times and 6 times. Patients who developed cardiovascular dysfunction, hematological dysfunction and post-trauma renal failure during the hospital stay had risk for mortality 29, 7 and 8 times, respectively. The final prognostic score obtained was: 14*hepatic dysfunction + 11*cISS + 18*cUrea + 12*cGlucose + 10*pulmonary dysfunction. Optimal score cut-off for prediction of renal failure was found to be ≥25 with specificity, sensitivity and positive likelihood ratio to be 84.9%, 78.4% and 3.9, respectively.

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