Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 321-327

Maximum surgical blood ordering schedule in a tertiary trauma center in northern India: A proposal

1 Blood Bank and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Surgery, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Neurosurgery, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Arulselvi Subramanian
Blood Bank and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.102391

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Context: Over ordering of blood is a common practice in elective surgical practice. Considerable time and effort is spent on cross-matching for each patient undergoing a surgical procedure. Aims: The aim of this study was to compile and review the blood utilization for two key departments (Neurosurgery and Surgery) in a level 1 trauma center. A secondary objective was to formulate a rational blood ordering practice for elective procedures for these departments. Materials and Methods: Analysis of prospectively compiled blood bank records of the patients undergoing elective surgical, neurosurgical procedures was carried out between April 2007 and March 2009. Indices such as the cross-matched/transfused ratio (C/T ratio), transfusion index and transfusion probability were calculated. The number of red cell units required for each procedure was calculated using the equation proposed by Nuttall et al, using preoperative hemoglobin and postoperative hemoglobin for each elective surgical procedure. Results: There were 252 surgery patients (age range: 2-80 years) in the study. One thousand and eighty-eight units of blood were cross-matched, 432 were transfused (CT ratio 2.5). 44.0% patients did not require transfusion during entire hospital stay. Three (50%) elective procedures had CT ratio >2.5and 4 (66.6%) elective procedures had TI <0.5. There were 200 neurosurgery patients (age range: 2-62 years) in the study. Total 717 units of blood were cross-matched and 161 transfused (CT ratio 4.5). Nine elective procedures had CT ratio >2.5, with five of them exceeding 4. In procedures like spinal instrumentation the CT ratio was <2.5 and 10 (90.9%) of elective procedures had TI <0.5. Conclusions: In this study 40% and 22% of cross-matched blood was being utilized for elective general surgery and neurosurgical procedures, respectively. The calculated required blood units for all elective Trauma surgery procedures were more than 2 units. The calculated required blood units were less than 0.5 units in four of the 11 neurosurgical procedures, and hence only one unit should be arranged for them. It is crucial for every institutional blood bank to formulate a blood ordering schedule. Regular auditing and periodic feedbacks are also vital to improve the blood utilization practices.

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