Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2011  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 58-63

Determinants of mortality in trauma patients following massive blood transfusion

1 Laboratory Medicine & Blood Bank, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Biostatistics, AIIMS, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Arulselvi Subramanian
Laboratory Medicine & Blood Bank, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.76839

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Aim : This study was designed to find out the factors influencing mortality in trauma patients receiving massive blood transfusion (MBT). Materials and Methods : Records of all patients admitted during December 2007 to November 2008 at a Level I Trauma Center emergency and who underwent massive transfusion (≥10 units of packed red cells in 24 h) were retrospectively analyzed. Death during the hospital stay was considered as the study outcome and various demographic, laboratory, and clinical parameters were included as its potential determinants. Statistical Analysis : Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done to identify the risk factors associated with mortality. Results : Of the 4054 transfused patients who were admitted to the trauma center during the study period, 71 (1.8%) patients underwent massive transfusion. Of this, there were 37 survivors and 34 nonsurvivors (48%). The median overall ISS was 27 (22-34). The patients who died had shorter mean length of hospital stay, shorter mean duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and low admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) compared to the survivors (P < 0.01). The mean prothrombin time (PT) and the mean activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly high (P < 0.01) among nonsurvivors. Total leukocyte count (TLC ≥ 10,000 cells/cubic mm), GCS ≤ 8, the presence of coagulopathy and major vascular surgery were the four independent determinants of mortality in multivariate logistic regression analysis. The FFP:PRBC (fresh frozen plasma:packed red cells) ratio and PC:PRBC (platelet concentrate:packed red cells) ratio calculated in our study was not statistically significant in correlation to the in hospital mortality. Conclusions : Overall mortality among the MBT patients was comparable with the studies in the literature. Mortality is not affected by the amount of packed red cells given in the first 12 h and the total number of packed red cells transfused. Prospective studies are required to further validate the determinants of mortality and establish guidelines for MBT.

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