Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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   2016| July-September  | Volume 9 | Issue 3  
    Online since July 4, 2016

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hypothermia as a predictor for mortality in trauma patients at admittance to the intensive care unit
Kirsten Balvers, Marjolein Van der Horst, Maarten Graumans, Christa Boer, Jan M Binnekade, J Carel Goslings, Nicole P Juffermans
July-September 2016, 9(3):97-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185276  PMID:27512330
Aims: To study the impact of hypothermia upon admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on early and late mortality and to develop a prediction model for late mortality in severely injured trauma patients. Materials and Methods: A multicenter retrospective cohort study was performed in adult trauma patients admitted to the ICU of two Level-1 trauma centers between 2007 and 2012. Hypothermia was defined as a core body temperature of ≤35° Celsius. Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the effect of hypothermia on 24-hour and 28-day mortality and to develop a prediction model. Results: A total of 953 patients were included, of which 354 patients had hypothermia (37%) upon ICU admission. Patients were divided into a normothermic or hypothermic group. Hypothermia was associated with a significantly increased mortality at 24 hours and 28 days (OR 2.72 (1.18-6.29 and OR 2.82 (1.83-4.35) resp.). The variables included in the final prediction model were hypothermia, age, APACHE II score (corrected for temperature), INR, platelet count, traumatic brain injury and Injury Severity Score. The final prediction model discriminated between survivors and non-survivors with high accuracy (AUC = 0.871, 95% CI 0.844-0.898). Conclusions: Hypothermia, defined as a temperature ≤35° Celsius, is common in critically ill trauma patients and is one of the most important physiological predictors for early and late mortality in trauma patients. Trauma patients admitted to the ICU may be at high risk for late mortality if the patient is hypothermic, coagulopathic, severely injured and has traumatic brain injury or an advanced age.
  3,596 29 -
Extremes of shock index predicts death in trauma patients
Stephen R Odom, Michael D Howell, Alok Gupta, George Silva, Charles H Cook, Daniel Talmor
July-September 2016, 9(3):103-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185272  PMID:27512331
Context: We noted a bimodal relationship between mortality and shock index (SI), the ratio of heart rate to systolic blood pressure. Aims: To determine if extremes of SI can predict mortality in trauma patients. Settings and Designs: Retrospective evaluation of adult trauma patients at a tertiary care center from 2000 to 2012 in the United States. Materials and Methods: We examined the SI in trauma patients and determined the adjusted mortality for patients with and without head injuries. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Results: SI values demonstrated a U-shaped relationship with mortality. Compared with patients with a SI between 0.5 and 0.7, patients with a SI of <0.3 had an odds ratio for death of 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2–4.1) after adjustment for age, Glasgow Coma score, and injury severity score while patients with SI >1.3 had an odds ratio of death of 3.1. (95% CI 1.6–5.9). Elevated SI is associated with increased mortality in patients with isolated torso injuries, and is associated with death at both low and high values in patients with head injury. Conclusion: Our data indicate a bimodal relationship between SI and mortality in head injured patients that persists after correction for various co-factors. The distribution of mortality is different between head injured patients and patients without head injuries. Elevated SI predicts death in all trauma patients, but low SI values only predict death in head injured patients.
  3,208 30 -
EXPERT COMMENTARY
In the blink of an eye: Instant countertransference and its application in modern healthcare
Nidal Moukaddam, Veronica Tucci, Sagar Galwankar, Asim Shah
July-September 2016, 9(3):95-96
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185279  PMID:27512329
  2,659 42 -
EDITORIAL
What's new in emergencies, trauma, and shock: Intentional or accidental hypothermia in intensive care unit patients: Time to strike the colors?
Patrick M Honore, Rita Jacobs, Inne Hendrickx, Joris Troubleyn, Elisabeth De Waele, Herbert D Spapen
July-September 2016, 9(3):93-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185277  PMID:27512328
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mortality in trauma patients with active arterial bleeding managed by embolization or surgical packing: An observational cohort study of 66 patients
Lonnie Froberg, Frederik Helgstrand, Caroline Clausen, Jacob Steinmetz, Henrik Eckardt
July-September 2016, 9(3):107-114
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185274  PMID:27512332
Objective: Exsanguination due to coagulopathy and vascular injury is a common cause of death among trauma patients. Arterial injury can be treated either by angiography and embolization or by explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. The purpose of this study was to compare 30-day mortality and blood product consumption in trauma patients with active arterial haemorrhage in the abdominal and/or pelvic region treated with either angiography and embolization or explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. Material and Methods: From January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2011 2,173 patients with an ISS of >9 were admitted to the Trauma Centre of Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Of these, 66 patients met the inclusion criteria: age above 15 years and active arterial haemorrhage from the abdominal and/or pelvic region verified by a CT scan at admission. Gender, age, initial oxygen saturation, pulse rate and respiratory rate, mechanism of injury, ISS, Probability of Survival, treatment modality, 30-day mortality and number and type of blood products applied were retrieved from the TARN database, patient records and the Danish Civil Registration System. Results: Thirty-one patients received angiography and embolization, and 35 patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and surgical packing. Gender, age, initial oxygen saturation, pulse rate and respiratory rate, ISS and Probability of Survival were comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: A significant increased risk of 30-day mortality (P = 0.04) was found in patients with active bleeding treated with explorative laparotomy and surgical packing compared to angiography and embolization when data was adjusted for age and ISS. No statistical significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in number of transfused blood products applied in the two groups of patients.
  2,547 28 -
Assessment of cardiopulmonary resuscitation practices in emergency departments for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims in Lebanon
Samar Noureddine, Tamar Avedissian, Hussain Isma'eel, Mazen J El Sayed
July-September 2016, 9(3):115-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185275  PMID:27512333
Background: The survival rate of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) victims in Lebanon is low. A national policy on resuscitation practice is lacking. This survey explored the practices of emergency physicians related to the resuscitation of OHCA victims in Lebanon. Methods: A sample of 705 physicians working in emergency departments (EDs) was recruited and surveyed using the LimeSurvey software (Carsten Schmitz, Germany). Seventy-five participants responded, yielding 10.64% response rate. Results: The most important factors in the participants' decision to initiate or continue resuscitation were presence of pulse on arrival (93.2%), underlying cardiac rhythm (93.1%), the physician's ethical duty to resuscitate (93.2%), transport time to the ED (89%), and down time (84.9%). The participants were optimistic regarding the survival of OHCA victims (58.1% reporting > 10% survival) and reported frequent resuscitation attempts in medically futile situations. The most frequently reported challenges during resuscitation decisions were related to pressure or presence of victim's family (38.8%) and lack of policy (30%). Conclusion: In our setting, physicians often rely on well-established criteria for initiating/continuing resuscitation; however, their decisions are also influenced by cultural factors such as victim's family wishes. The findings support the need for a national policy on resuscitation of OHCA victims.
  2,164 26 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Medical demographics in sub-Saharan Africa: Does the proportion of elderly patients in accident and emergency units mirror life expectancy trends?
Thomas R Wojda, Kristine Cornejo, Pamela L Valenza, Gregory Carolan, Richard P Sharpe, Alaa-Eldin A Mira, Sagar C Galwankar, Stanislaw Peter Stawicki
July-September 2016, 9(3):122-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185278  PMID:27512334
  1,917 27 -
Delayed diagnosis of a thoracolumbar flexion-distraction injury
Jonathan D Hodax, J Mason DePasse, Alan H Daniels, Mark A Palumbo
July-September 2016, 9(3):125-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.185273  PMID:27512335
  1,905 27 -
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