Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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   2013| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 19, 2013

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Cough-induced internal oblique hematoma
Koichi Kodama, Yasukazu Takase, Hiroki Yamamoto, Toru Noda
April-June 2013, 6(2):132-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110789  PMID:23723625
Violent or sustained cough can be associated with serious musculoskeletal complications. We report a case of a cough-induced internal oblique hematoma in an obese 73-year-old woman who was not receiving antithrombotic therapy. She had no history of trauma and presented with acute worsening pain in the right flank. She had been coughing continuously for the past month and had severe cough 2 days before the onset of pain. Ultrasonography revealed a hypoechoic mass in the right lateral abdominal wall. Unenhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed a 7 cm × 7 cm × 4 cm hematoma in the right internal oblique muscle. The patient was managed conservatively without blood transfusion. Acute abdominal pain together with an abdominal painful mass, particularly in patients with cough, should alert physicians to the possibility of an abdominal wall hematoma.
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Sternal fractures and their management
Al-achraf Khoriati, Ramyah Rajakulasingam, Rakhee Shah
April-June 2013, 6(2):113-116
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110763  PMID:23723620
Sternal fractures are predominantly associated with deceleration injuries and blunt anterior chest trauma. Sternal trauma must be carefully evaluated by monitoring of vital parameters and it is of paramount importance that concomitant injuries are excluded. Nevertheless, routine admission of patients with isolated sternal fractures for observation is still common in today's practice, which is often unnecessary. This article aims to describe the prognosis, the recommended assessment and management of patients with sternal fractures, to help clinicians make an evidence-based judgment regarding the need for hospitalization.
  3,830 20 1
Loose bodies in right elbow joint: Post traumatic? or post infective?
Hemlata Panwar, V Senthil Kumar, Vivek Trikha, Arulselvi Subramanian
April-June 2013, 6(2):129-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110784  PMID:23723624
Tuberculous osteomyelitis after open fracture is uncommon. Early diagnosis of tubercular arthritis is difficult because of insidious onset, indolent process and mild or non specific local or systemic symptoms. This case report describes the fibrinous loose bodies in elbow joint of a patient who sustained a compound fracture presented with chronic non healing discharging sinus. Intra-operatively some suspected seed like bodies were removed and sent for histopathological examination which showed circumscribed homogenous fibrinous bodies with focal area of hyalinization and few embedded tiny osteolytic fragments. Acid Fast Bacilli staining was positive. The patient had a good recovery after treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs.
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Bioterrorism education effect on knowledge and attitudes of nurses
Nahid Aghaei, Masoumeh Bagheri Nesami
April-June 2013, 6(2):78-82
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110747  PMID:23723614
Context: The most important way against bioterrorism is reinforcement of knowledge of health and medical team to diagnose and rapid reaction during these events. Aims: To assess the effect of bioterrorism education on knowledge and attitudes of nurses. Settings and Design: the setting of study was one of the infectious disease wards, emergency rooms or internal wards of the hospitals under supervision of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this pre-experimental study, 65 nurses who had all inclusion criteria are selected by accessible sampling method. Data on nurses knowledge and attitudes toward bioterrorism were collected using a self-administered questionnaire before and after two two-h sessions education. After a month of education, the units responded to questionnaire again. Statistical Analysis Used: A descriptive statistics Wilcoxon tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were used. Results: Before education, the majority of units (96.9%) had low knowledge about bioterrorism (0-33.3% score of 100%),whereas after education, the majority of them (100%) had good knowledge(well done) (66.7-100% score of 100%). And majority of units (96.9%) before education had indifferent attitude toward bioterrorism (33.4-66.6% score of 100%), whereas a majority of them (98.5%) after education had positive attitude (66.7-100% score of 100%). Conclusions: The education has a positive effect on nurses' knowledge and attitudes and it can be a guideline for administrators of the Ministry of Health and medicine for planning to achieve the goals of preventive and defense against bioterrorism.
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Evaluating trauma center process performance in an integrated trauma system with registry data
Lynne Moore, André Lavoie, Marie-Josée Sirois, Rachid Amini, Amina Belcaïd, John S Sampalis
April-June 2013, 6(2):95-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110754  PMID:23723617
Background: The evaluation of trauma center performance implies the use of indicators that evaluate clinical processes. Despite the availability of routinely collected clinical data in most trauma systems, quality improvement efforts are often limited to hospital-based audit of adverse patient outcomes. Objective: To identify and evaluate a series of process performance indicators (PPI) that can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. Materials and Methods: PPI were identified using a review of published literature, trauma system documentation, and expert consensus. Data from the 59 trauma centers of the Quebec trauma system (1999, 2006; N = 99,444) were used to calculate estimates of conformity to each PPI for each trauma center. Outliers were identified by comparing each center to the global mean. PPI were evaluated in terms of discrimination (between-center variance), construct validity (correlation with designation level and patient volume), and forecasting (correlation over time). Results: Fifteen PPI were retained. Global proportions of conformity ranged between 6% for reduction of a major dislocation within 1 h and 97% for therapeutic laparotomy. Between-center variance was statistically significant for 13 PPI. Five PPI were significantly associated with designation level, 7 were associated with volume, and 11 were correlated over time. Conclusion: In our trauma system, results suggest that a series of 15 PPI supported by literature review or expert opinion can be calculated using routinely collected trauma registry data. We have provided evidence of their discrimination, construct validity, and forecasting properties. The between-center variance observed in this study highlights the importance of evaluating process performance in integrated trauma systems.
  3,440 22 1
What's new in Emergencies, Trauma and Shock? Studying the clinical and biochemical correlates in methanol poisoning
Jahan Porhomayon
April-June 2013, 6(2):71-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110744  PMID:23723612
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Study of various clinical and laboratory parameters among 178 patients affected by hooch tragedy in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (India): A single center experience
Bhavesh S Jarwani, Puja D Motiani, Sachin Sachdev
April-June 2013, 6(2):73-77
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110745  PMID:23723613
Introduction/Purpose: The outbreak of methanol poisoning described in this paper occurred in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India in July 2009. Our intention is to share the experience of clinical features, laboratory investigations and their relation during this tragedy. Materials and Methods: Single center, retrospective study of clinical features and laboratory parameters of 178 cases of methanol toxicity treated at tertiary care hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Results: Maximum patients (39.8%, n = 45) were received in 48 h; Mean age of presentation was 41.9 ± 10.2 years. Most of them were men (175 out of 178). On presentation, 83% patients had gastro-intestinal symptoms, 46% had neurological symptoms, 73% had visual symptoms and 32% had dyspnoea. 62% had blurred vision, 10.5% had blindness. Patients with visual symptoms had high mean level of methanol (120.12 ± 23.12 vs. 55.43 ± 29.24, P = 0.014). On fundus examination 52.8% (n = 62) had bilateral hyperaemia of discs, 8.4% (n = 12) had bilateral disc pallor and 4.5% had papilledema (n = 5). Patients with hyperaemia of discs, discs pallor or papilledema, had higher mean methanol level (121.1 ± 32.2 mg% v/s 70.1 ± 23.2 mg%, P = 0.032). Mean of pH values was 7.17 ± 0.22 and bicarbonate was 12.3 ± 7.3 mmol/L. Both pH and bicarbonate levels correlated well with mortality and serum methanol level. Mean serum methanol level was 87.1 mg/dL, and correlated significantly with the mortality (53.1 ± 41 mg/dL v/s 121 ± 92 mg/dL, P value < 0.05). Conclusion: GI symptoms, neurological symptoms and breathlessness are important clue to ED physician for diagnose methanol poisoning. Visual symptoms and fundus findings correlate well with the methanol level. Arterial Blood Gas derived pH and bicarbonate levels correlate significantly with the methanol level and mortality.
  3,001 13 -
Potential wrist ligament injury in rescuers performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Robert Curran, Sasha Sorr, Eva Aquino
April-June 2013, 6(2):123-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110776  PMID:23723622
Wrist pain in rescuers performing chest compressions as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation has been reported anecdotally and recently in the literature. Studies have indicated that rescuers apply as much as 644 N of force to the victim's chest with each compression, while standards require one hundred compressions per minute. Recent research suggests that forces transmitted through the rescuers' wrists of less than 10% of those seen during the performance of chest compressions significantly strain the scapholunate ligament. Biomechanical research should be performed to further evaluate this possible correlation. Compensation for worker injury maybe involved.
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Significance of urinary incontinence, age, and consciousness level on arrival among patients with stroke
Youichi Yanagawa, Tomoyuki Yoshihara, Hiroshi Kato, Toshiaki Iba, Hiroshi Tanaka
April-June 2013, 6(2):83-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110750  PMID:23723615
Purpose: We retrospectively investigated prognostic factors including urinary incontinence on arrival among the patients with stroke. Materials and Methods: A medical chart review was retrospectively performed for patients with stoke admitted between January 2010 and December 2010 in Ken-o Tokorozawa Hospital which had stroke care unit. The subjects were divided into a control group (functional outcome with modified Rankin scale (mRS) 0-3 at 3 months) and a poor group (severe disability or death, mRS 4-6). Results: There were 160 cases that had favorable outcome (the Control group) and 77 cases that had poor outcome (the Poor group). There were no significant differences between the two groups concerning the sex ratio, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, ratio of diabetes mellitus. However, the average age, ratio of hemorrhagic stroke, ratio of patients with a previous stroke, ratio of urinary incontinence upon admission, and duration of hospitalization in the Poor group was significantly higher than in the Control group. The Glasgow Coma Scale upon admission and ratio of hypertension in the Poor group were significantly lower than that in the Control group. Using a multiple logistic regression analysis, urinary incontinence (odds ratio, 3.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.45-6.93; P = 0.002), age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07; P = 0.003) and Glasgow Coma Scale (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-0.97; P = 0.01) were found to be factors independently associated with a poor outcome. Conclusion: Among the patients with strokes, the presence of urinary incontinence on arrival, the old age, and the level of consciousness are important prognostic factors. Physicians should therefore check for these factors when evaluating a patient who has experienced a stroke or suspected stroke.
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Impact of road traffic "penalty points" on high energy pelvic trauma
Prasad Ellanti, Nikos Davarinos, Seamus Morris, John Paul McElwain
April-June 2013, 6(2):110-112
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110761  PMID:23723619
Background: The penalty points system (PPS) was introduced in 2002 in an attempt to reduce the increasing rate of road traffic accident (RTA) related fatalities and serious injuries. Points are awarded based on the severity of the offence and are cumulative. A total of 12 points results in the disqualification from driving. Objective: A few studies have looked at the immediate or short term impact of PPS on trauma services or specific injuries such as spine trauma in Ireland. Little data is available on the long term effect of the PPS. The aim of this study is to see if the PPS system has had an influence on the number of pelvic injuries referred to our unit for surgical intervention and if this influence is sustained in the longer term. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all pelvic and acetabular injuries admitted to our unit from 1999 to 2008 was undertaken. The mechanism of injury, the site and patient demographics were noted. Results: A total of 467 patients were identified over the ten year period. 454 patients were included in the study. There was a significant male preponderance of 76%. Mean age was 36.5 years (range 16 to 83). RTA's were the cause in 74% (n = 335) of the cases. The annual work load remained similar over the years. There has been a reduction in the number of RTA related pelvic injuries. There have been notable drops in the number of these cases corresponding to the introduction of the PPS and its subsequent expansion. The number of pelvic injuries due to falls continues to rise. Conslusion: The introduction of the PPS and its subsequent expansion has had a positive influence on the number of RTA related pelvic trauma. Continued surveillance and enforcement of the PPS is important for a sustained benefit from it in the long term.
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for acute thoracic trauma
Michael Goodman, Jaime Lewis, Julian Guitron, Michael Reed, Timothy Pritts, Sandra Starnes
April-June 2013, 6(2):106-109
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110757  PMID:23723618
Background: Operative intervention for thoracic trauma typically requires thoracotomy. We hypothesized that thoracoscopy may be safely and effectively utilized for the acute management of thoracic injuries. Materials and Methods: The Trauma Registry of a Level I trauma center was queried from 1999 through 2010 for all video-assisted thoracic procedures within 24 h of admission. Data collected included initial vital signs, operative indication, intraoperative course, and postoperative outcome. Results: Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria: 3 (13%) following blunt injury and 20 (87%) after penetrating trauma. Indications for urgent thoracoscopy included diaphragmatic/esophageal injury, retained hemothorax, ongoing hemorrhage, and open/persistent pneumothorax. No conversions to thoracotomy were required and no patient required re-operation. Mean postoperative chest tube duration was 2.9 days and mean length of stay was 5.6 days. Conclusion: Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is safe and effective for managing thoracic trauma in hemodynamically stable patients within the first 24 h post-injury.
  2,724 17 3
Combined tracheoesophageal transection after blunt neck trauma
Umar Imran Hamid, James Mark Jones
April-June 2013, 6(2):117-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110774  PMID:23723621
Survival following tracheoesophageal transection is uncommon. Establishing a secure airway has the highest priority in trauma management. Understanding the mechanism of the incident can be a useful adjunct in predicting the likelihood and severity of specific anatomical patterns of injuries. We discuss published literature on combined tracheoesophageal injuries after blunt neck trauma and their outcome. A search of MEDLINE for papers published regarding tracheoesophageal injury was made. The literature search identified 14 such articles referring to a total of 27 patients. Age ranged from 3-73 years. The mechanism of injury was secondary to a rope/wire in 33%, metal bar in 4% of cases and unspecified in 63%. All of the patients were managed surgically. A number of tissues were used to protect the anastomosis including pleural and sternocleidomastoid muscle flaps. There were no reported mortalities. Patients with combined tracheoesophageal injury after blunt neck trauma require acute management of airway along with concomitant occult injuries.
  2,551 17 -
Expectoration of a bullet after gunshot wound to the chest
Stancie C Rhodes, Surupa S Gupta
April-June 2013, 6(2):135-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110792  PMID:23723626
Over the last century, only four cases have been published of patients sustaining gunshot wounds to the chest, managed nonoperatively, who eventually expectorated the bullet. We report the case of a hemodynamically stable 24-year-old male whose bullet was found in the left pulmonary hilum on admission computed tomography (CT) scan. Further workup revealed no obvious aerodigestive injury. Shortly after extubation, he expectorated the bullet onto the floor. Little is known about how to manage these stable, yet challenging patients.
  2,518 13 -
Early non-aneurysmal infectious aortitis: Cross-sectional imaging diagnosis
Massimo Tonolini, Luca Luigi Bazzi, Roberto Bianco
April-June 2013, 6(2):143-145
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110811  PMID:23723629
In patients without history of vascular surgery, infectious aortitis is a very uncommon, life-threatening condition with nonspecific clinical manifestations, which exposes the patient to uncontrolled sepsis and to the risk of retroperitoneal rupture. State-of-the-art cross-sectional imaging with contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allows confident diagnosis and characterization of unsuspected aortitis in septic patients at an early stage before the development of aneurysmal dilatation. The asymmetric distribution of periaortic inflammatory tissue is helpful for the differentiation of this exceptional disorder from other periaortic abnormalities such as retroperitoneal fibrosis or lymphoma.
  2,393 18 2
Lisuride toxicity in a pediatric patient
Tahani A Alahmadi, Quais M Mujawar
April-June 2013, 6(2):140-142
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110803  PMID:23723628
Lisuride Maleate (Dopergin) is semi synthetic ergot alkaloid used for a variety of medical conditions. It is licensed for use in Canada, EU and Middle East countries and is marketed by various drug companies. There are no reported cases of lisuride toxicity in the literature on Google Search or Pub med Search.Herein, we present a case of accidental overdose of lisuride maleate in a 21-month-old Saudi male and further clinical course and management. The aim of this report was to document the unusual features of lisuride toxicity in pediatric patients and to guide physicians for its management.
  2,373 21 1
Etiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest diagnosed via detailed examinations including perimortem computed tomography
Yoshihiro Moriwaki, Yoshio Tahara, Takayuki Kosuge, Noriyuki Suzuki
April-June 2013, 6(2):87-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110752  PMID:23723616
Context: The spectrum of the etiology of out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest (OHCPA) has not been established. We have performed perimortem computed tomography (CT) during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Aims: To clarify the incidence of non-cardiac etiology (NCE), actual distribution of the causes of OHCPA via perimortem CT and its usefulness. Settings and Design: Population-based observational case series study. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 1846 consecutive OHCPA cases and divided them into two groups: 370 showing an obvious cause of OHCPA with NCE (trauma, neck hanging, terminal stage of malignancy, and gastrointestinal bleeding) and others. Results: Of a total OHCPA, perimortem CT was performed in 57.5% and 62.5% were finally diagnosed as NCE: Acute aortic dissection (AAD) 8.07%, pulmonary thrombo-embolization (PTE) 1.46%, hypoxia due to pneumonia 5.25%, asthma and acute worsening of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2.06%, cerebrovascular disorder (CVD) 4.48%, airway obstruction 7.64%, and submersion 5.63%. The rates of patients who survived to hospital discharge were 6-14% in patients with NCE. Out of the 1476 cases excluding obvious NCE of OHCPA, 66.3% underwent perimortem CT, 14.6% of cases without obvious NCE and 22.1% of cases with perimortem CT were confirmed as having some NCE. Conclusions: Of the total OHCPA the incidences of NCE was 62.5%; the leading etiologies were AAD, airway obstruction, submersion, hypoxia and CVD. The rates of cases converted from cardiac etiology to NCE using perimortem CT were 14.6% of cases without an obvious NCE.
  2,339 23 1
Spontaneous pneumobilia revealing choledocho-duodenal fistula: A rare complication of peptic ulcer disease
Massimo Tonolini
April-June 2013, 6(2):146-147
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110814  PMID:23723630
Spontaneous pneumobilia without previous surgery or interventional procedures indicates an abnormal biliary-enteric communication, most usually a cholelithiasis-related gallbladder perforation. Conversely, choledocho-duodenal fistulisation (CDF) from duodenal bulb ulcer is currently exceptional, reflecting the low prevalence of peptic disease. Combination of clinical data (occurrence in middle-aged males, ulcer history, absent jaundice and cholangitis) and CT findings including pneumobilia, normal gallbladder, adhesion with fistulous track between posterior duodenum and pancreatic head) allow diagnosis of CDF, and differentiation from usual gallstone-related biliary fistulas requiring surgery. Conversely, ulcer-related CDF are effectively treated medically, whereas surgery is reserved for poorly controlled symptoms or major complications.
  2,083 13 -
Different strokes for different folks
Asmita A Mehta, Darsana Viswam, Rajesh Venkitakrishnan, Manoj Padmanabhan
April-June 2013, 6(2):126-128
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110782  PMID:23723623
A 42-year-old woman, presented to our emergency room with chief complaints of acute onset of dyspnea, left-sided chest pain, and respiratory distress. On arrival, she had blood pressure of 90/50 mm Hg, respiratory rate of 40/min, and oxygen saturation of 95% breathing on 10 L oxygen. She was in significant respiratory distress. On examination, she was found to have diminished breath sounds on the left side of chest. Her chest radiograph showed left massive pleural effusion causing contralateral shift of mediastinum. Diagnostic pleural aspiration was done; results were consistent with hemothorax. Her multidetector computed tomography chest showed features of left-sided hemothorax (high attenuation) along with a 2 cm-enhancing lobulated opacity in the left lingular lobe, suggestive of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM). She was successfully treated with surgical resection of PAVM.
  2,031 14 -
The perils of sneezing: Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax
Christina L Bourne
April-June 2013, 6(2):138-139
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110796  PMID:23723627
This is a brief case report of an adolescent male who developed bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax after sneezing.
  1,894 16 -
Transcutaneous absorption of anti-lice shampoo presenting as diabetic ketoacidosis
Subramanian Senthilkumaran, Shah Sweni, Ritesh G Menezes, Ponniah Thirumalaikolundusubramanian
April-June 2013, 6(2):149-150
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110819  PMID:23723632
  1,679 15 1
A case of Streptococcus pneumoniae inducing pneumonia in a patient whose chief complaint was gate disturbance caused by rhabdomyolysis
Youichi Yanagawa, Koichiro Aihara, Shuhei Yamamoto, Fumi Okuzumi
April-June 2013, 6(2):151-152
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110821  PMID:23723634
  1,469 12 -
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in an acute surgical patient
Ramyah Rajakulasingam, Charis Costopoulos, Maytham Omran
April-June 2013, 6(2):148-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110816  PMID:23723631
  1,440 18 1
The critical pregnant patient: A field of competence not only obstetric
Emilio Giugliano, Elisa Cagnazzo, Tarcisio Servello, Roberto Marci
April-June 2013, 6(2):150-151
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.110820  PMID:23723633
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