Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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   2012| April-June  | Volume 5 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 24, 2012

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Hemostatic resuscitation with plasma and platelets in trauma
Pär I Johansson, Roberto S Oliveri, Sisse R Ostrowski
April-June 2012, 5(2):120-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96479  
Background: Continued hemorrhage remains a major contributor of mortality in massively transfused patients and controversy regarding the optimal management exists although recently, the concept of hemostatic resuscitation, i.e., providing large amount of blood products to critically injured patients in an immediate and sustained manner as part of an early massive transfusion protocol has been introduced. The aim of the present review was to investigate the potential effect on survival of proactive administration of plasma and/or platelets (PLT) in trauma patients with massive bleeding. Materials and Methods: English databases were searched for reports of trauma patients receiving massive transfusion (10 or more red blood cell (RBC) within 24 hours or less from admission) that tested the effects of administration of plasma and/or PLT in relation to RBC concentrates on survival from January 2005 to November 2010. Comparison between highest vs lowest blood product ratios and 30-day mortality was performed. Results: Sixteen studies encompassing 3,663 patients receiving high vs low ratios were included. This meta-analysis of the pooled results revealed a substantial statistical heterogeneity (I 2 = 58%) and that the highest ratio of plasma and/or PLT or to RBC was associated with a significantly decreased mortality (OR: 0.49; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.57; P<0.0001) when compared with lowest ratio. Conclusion: Meta-analysis of 16 retrospective studies concerning massively transfused trauma patients confirms a significantly lower mortality in patients treated with the highest fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or PLT ratio when compared with the lowest FFP and/or PLT ratio. However, optimal ranges of FFP: RBC and PLT : RBC should be established in randomized controlled trials.
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CASE REPORTS
Ventricular septal defect following blunt chest trauma
Lisa Ryan, David L Skinner, Reitze N Rodseth
April-June 2012, 5(2):184-187
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96492  
We present a 32-year-old male with ventricular septal defect (VSD) following blunt chest trauma. Traumatic VSD is a rare but potentially life-threatening injury, the severity, course and presentation of which are variable. While the diagnosis of myocardial injury may be challenging, cardiac troponins are useful as a screening and diagnostic test. The proposed pathophysiological mechanisms in the development of traumatic VSD are early mechanical rupture and delayed inflammatory rupture. We conducted a literature review to investigate the pathogenesis, distribution of patterns of presentation, and the associated prognoses in patients with VSD following blunt chest trauma. We found that traumatic VSDs diagnosed within 48 hours were more likely to be severe, require emergency surgery and were associated with a higher mortality. Children with traumatic VSDs had an increased mortality risk. Smaller lesions may be managed conservatively but should be followed up to detect late complications. In both groups elective repair was associated with a good outcome.
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Unilateral mydriasis secondary to ipratropium bromide in a critically ill patient
Luciano Santana-Cabrera, Ernesto José Fernández-Tagarro, Beatriz del Amo-Nolasco, Nieves Jaén-Sánchez, Juan José Cáceres-Agra
April-June 2012, 5(2):199-200
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96499  
Unilateral dilated pupil in a critical patient under sedation is an important clinical sign that requires prompt evaluation. An exhaustive assessment must be performed, including neurological examination and imaging tests, and pharmacological causes must be ruled out. We describe a case of unilateral fixed dilated pupil secondary to the administration of a nebulized cholinergic antagonist, ipratropium bromide, in an unconscious patient.
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SYMPOSIUM ON CURRENT CARE IN CRITICAL CLINICAL CONDITIONS
The critical airway in adults: The facts
Fabrizio Giuseppe Bonanno
April-June 2012, 5(2):153-159
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96485  
An algorithm on the indications and timing for a surgical airway in emergency as such cannot be drawn due to the multiplicity of variables and the inapplicability in the context of life-threatening critical emergency, where human brain elaborates decisions better in cluster rather than in binary fashion. In particular, in emergency or urgent scenarios, there is no clear or established consensus as to specifically who should receive a tracheostomy as a life-saving procedure; and more importantly, when. The two classical indications for emergency tracheostomy (laryngeal injury and failure to secure airway with endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy) are too generic and encompass a broad spectrum of possibilities. In literature, specific indications for emergency tracheostomy are scattered and are biased, partially comprehensive, not clearly described or not homogeneously gathered. The review highlights the indications and timing for an emergency surgical airway and gives recommendations on which surgical airway method to use in critical airway.
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CASE REPORTS
Intracranial hypertension secondary to psychogenic polydipsia
Vanessa M Gleason, Niels D Martin
April-June 2012, 5(2):193-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96496  
Psychogenic polydipsia, in its most severe form, can lead to acute water intoxication by way of extreme hyponatremia. This results in cerebral edema, mental status deterioration and can lead to life threatening intracranial hypertension if not identified and treated urgently. However, this treatment rarely involves surgical intervention. Herein, we describe a 47-year-old man who presented to our emergency department who was found down with a decline in mental status and generalized tonic clonic seizures. He was comatose with glasgow coma score of 5. His exam was notable for sluggishly reactive pupils, absence of corneal reflexes, decorticate posturing, and globally increased tone and hyper-reflexia with upgoing toes bilaterally. Lab work revealed sodium of 107 mmol/L. CT scan of the head showed global cerebral edema with sulcal effacement. A ventriculostomy was placed with an opening pressure of 35-cm H 2 O, and cerebrospinal fluid was drained to maintain normal intracranial pressure. Fluid restriction and hypertonic saline were used to carefully correct the hyponatremia. The patient improved and at day five was neurologically intact. His history later revealed schizophrenia and a predilection for drinking greater than 8 L of diet cola daily.
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EDITORIAL
What's new in Emergencies Trauma and Shock? C-reactive protein as a potential clinical biomarker for influenza infection: More questions than answers
Keng Sheng Chew
April-June 2012, 5(2):115-117
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96477  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Use of a furosemide drip does not improve earlier primary fascial closure in the open abdomen
Leland H Webb, Mayur B Patel, Marcus J Dortch, Richard S Miller, Oliver L Gunter, Bryan R Collier
April-June 2012, 5(2):126-129
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96480  
Background: The furosemide drip (FD), in addition to improving volume overload respiratory failure, has been used to decrease fluid in attempts to decrease intra-abdominal and abdominal wall volumes to facilitate fascial closure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the FD and the associated rate of primary fascial closure following trauma damage control laparotomy (DCL). Materials and Methods: From January 2004 to September 2008, a retrospective review from a single institution Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons dataset was performed. All DCLs greater than 24 h who had a length of stay for 3 or more days were identified. The study group (FD+) and control group (FD-) were compared. Demographic data including age, sex, probability of survival, red blood cell transfusions, initial lactate, and mortality were collected. Primary outcomes included primary fascial closure and primary fascial closure within 7 days. Secondary outcomes included total ventilator days and LOS. Results: A total of 139 patients met inclusion criteria: 25 FD+ and 114 FD-. The 25 FD+ patients received the drug at a median 4 days post DCL. Demographic differences between the groups were not significantly different, except that initial lactate was higher for FD- (1.7 vs 4.0; P=0.03). No differences were noted between groups regarding successful primary fascial closure (FD+ 68.4% vs FD- 64.0%; P=0.669), or closure within 7 days (FD+13.2% vs FD- 28.0%; P=0.066) of original DCL. FD+ patients suffered more open abdomen days (4 [2-7] vs 2 [1-4]; P=0.001). FD+ did not demonstrate an association with primary fascial closure [Odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.260-8.307; P=0.663]. FD+ patients had more ventilator days and longer Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/hospital LOS (P<0.01). Conclusion: FD use may remove excess volume; however, forced diuresis with an FD is not associated with an increased rate of primary closure after DCL. Further studies are warranted to identify ICU strategies to facilitate fascial closure in DCL.
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Evaluation of the revised trauma and injury severity scores in elderly trauma patients
Hannah F Watts, Yaniv Kerem, Erik B Kulstad
April-June 2012, 5(2):131-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96481  
Background: Severity-of-illness scoring systems have primarily been developed for, and validated in, younger trauma patients. Aims: We sought to determine the accuracy of the injury severity score (ISS) and the revised trauma score (RTS) in predicting mortality and hospital length of stay (LOS) in trauma patients over the age of 65 treated in our emergency department (ED). Materials and Methods: Using the Illinois Trauma Registry, we identified all patients 65 years and older treated in our level I trauma facility from January 2004 to November 2007. The primary outcome was death; the secondary outcome was overall hospital length of stay (LOS). We measured associations between scores and outcomes with binary logistic and linear regression. Results: A total of 347 patients, 65 years of age and older were treated in our hospital during the study period. Median age was 76 years (IQR 69-82), with median ISS 13 (IQR 8-17), and median RTS 7.8 (IQR 7.1-7.8). Overall mortality was 24%. A higher value for ISS showed a positive correlation with likelihood of death, which although statistically significant, was numerically small (OR=1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.13, P<0.001). An elevated RTS had an inverse correlation to likelihood of death that was also statistically significant (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.58, P<0.001). Total hospital LOS increased with increasing ISS, with statistical significance decreasing at the highest levels of ISS, but an increase in RTS not confirming the predicted decrease in total hospital LOS consistently across all ranges of RTS. Conclusions: The ISS and the RTS were better predictors of mortality than hypothesized, but had limited correlation with hospital LOS in elderly trauma patients. Although there may be some utility in these scores when applied to the elderly population, caution is warranted if attempting to predict the prognosis of patients.
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Evaluation of amylase and lipase levels in blunt trauma abdomen patients
Subodh Kumar, Sushma Sagar, Arulselvi Subramanian, Venencia Albert, Ravindra Mohan Pandey, Nitika Kapoor
April-June 2012, 5(2):135-142
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96482  
Background: There are studies to prove the role of amylase and lipase estimation as a screening diagnostic tool to detect diseases apart from acute pancreatitis. However, there is sparse literature on the role of serum and urine amylase, lipase levels, etc to help predict the specific intra-abdominal injury after blunt trauma abdomen (BTA). Aim: To elucidate the significance of elevation in the levels of amylase and lipase in serum and urine samples as reliable parameters for accurate diagnosis and management of blunt trauma to the abdomen. Materials and Methods: A prospective analysis was done on the trauma patients admitted in Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, AIIMS, with blunt abdomen trauma injuries over a period of six months. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 1, 3, and 5 of admission for the estimation of amylase and lipase, liver function tests, serum bicarbonates, urine routine microscopy for red blood cells, and complete hemogram. Clinical details such as time elapsed from injury to admission, type of injury, trauma score, and hypotension were noted. Patients were divided into groups according to the single or multiple organs injured and according to their hospital outcome (dead/discharged). Wilcoxon's Rank sum or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare median values in two/three groups. Data analysis was performed using STATA 11.0 statistical software. Results: A total of 55 patients with median age 26 (range, 6-80) years, were enrolled in the study. Of these, 80% were males. Surgery was required for 20% of the patients. Out of 55 patients, 42 had isolated single organ injury [liver or spleen or gastrointestinal tract (GIT) or kidney]. Patients with pancreatic injury were excluded. In patients who suffered liver injuries, urine lipase levels on day 1, urine lipase/amylase ratio along with aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on days 1, 3, and 5, were found to be significant. Day 1 serum amylase, AST, ALT, hemoglobin, and hematocrit levels were found significant in patients who had spleen injury. Serum amylase levels on day 5 and ALP on day 3 were significant in patients who had GIT injury. Urine amylase levels on day 5 were found to be statistically significant in patients who had kidney injury. In patients with isolated organ injury to the liver or spleen, the levels of urine amylase were elevated on day 1 and gradually decreased on days 3 and 5, whereas in patients with injury to GIT, the urine amylase levels were observed to gradually increase on days 3 and 5. Conclusion: Although amylase and lipase levels in the serum and urine are not cost-effective clinical tools for routine diagnosis of extra-pancreatic abdominal injuries in BTA, but when coupled with other laboratory tests such as liver enzymes, they may be significant in predicting specific intra-abdominal injury.
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CASE REPORTS
Complicated colonic intussusception
Justin James, Paul N Strauss
April-June 2012, 5(2):188-189
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96493  
The manuscript deals with the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed large bowel obstruction. Per-rectal examination revealed a pedunculated lesion in the rectum; rigid sigmoidoscopy revealed a prolapsing pedunculated mass with a necrotic surface. The patient recovered well following anterior resection. Histology confirmed a pedunculated sub mucosal lipoma as the lead point for intussusception. Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of adult large bowel obstruction, and the preoperative clinical diagnosis of this condition can be difficult. Resection of the involved segment of the colon is the most appropriate choice of treatment in most such cases.
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Paraganglioma causing a myocardial infarction
Gerard DeMers, Steve Portouw
April-June 2012, 5(2):190-192
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96495  
Paragangliomas, extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas, are rare and classically associated with sustained or paroxysmal hypertension, headache, perspiration, palpitations, and anxiety. A 49-year-old male, parachute instructor, likely developed a hypertensive emergency when deploying his parachute leading to a myocardial infarction. A para-aortic tumor was incidentally discovered during the patient's emergency department work-up and was eventually surgically resected. He had no evidence of coronary disease during his evaluation. This case shows that a myocardial infarction may be the initial manifestation of these neuroendocrine tumors. Hypertensive emergency, much less elevated blood pressure may not be present at time of presentation.
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Severe metabolic acidosis following assault chemical burn
Sophie De Roock, Jean-Paul Deleuze, Thomas Rose, Serge Jennes, Philippe Hantson
April-June 2012, 5(2):178-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96488  
Assault chemical burns are uncommon in northern Europe. Besides local toxicity, systemic manifestations are possible after strong acid exposure. A 40-year-old woman was admitted 1 h after a criminal assault with sulfuric acid. The total burned surface area was 35%, third degree. Injury was due to sulfuric acid (measured pH 0.9) obtained from a car battery. Immediate complications were obstructive dyspnea and metabolic acidosis. The admission arterial pH was 6.92, with total bicarbonate 8.6 mEq/l and base deficit 23.4 mEq/l. The correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved after several hours by the administration of bicarbonate and lactate buffers. The patient developed several burns-related complications (sepsis and acute renal failure). Cutaneous projections of strong acids may cause severe metabolic acidosis, particularly when copious irrigation and clothes removal cannot be immediately performed at the scene.
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IMAGES IN MEDICINE
Mycotic visceral aneurysm complicating infectious endocarditis: Imaging diagnosis and follow-up
Massimo Tonolini, Marina Petullà, Roberto Bianco
April-June 2012, 5(2):201-203
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96501  
One of the rarest complications of endocarditis, infected (mycotic) aneurysms result from haematogenous dissemination of septic emboli and occur more frequently in patients with cardiac valvular abnormalities or prosthetic valves, intravenous drug abuse, diabetes and immunosuppression conditions such as HIV infection. Although often clinically unsuspected, mycotic aneurysms are potentially life-threatening because of disseminated sepsis and propensity to rupture. Contrast-enhanced multidetector CT provides prompt detection, characterization and vascular mapping of these lesions, allowing correct planning of surgical or interventional therapies and reproducible follow-up. Because of their characteristically unpredictable behaviour, mycotic aneurysms may undergo spontaneous thrombosis, size reduction, rapid enlargement or rupture, therefore strict imaging surveillance with CT and/or color Doppler ultrasound is necessary.
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LETTERS TO EDITOR
An assessment of maxillofacial fractures: A two-year retrospective study
SR Shenoi, Nilima Budhraja, Samprati Badjate
April-June 2012, 5(2):205-205
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96506  
  1 1,737 12
Scrotal pyocele: Uncommon urologic emergency
David I Bruner, Ellie L Ventura, John J Devlin
April-June 2012, 5(2):206-206
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96504  
  1 4,877 17
Emergency surgical management of a case with severe esophageal burns
Seyed Mohammad Vahid Hosseini, Ali Mohammad Bananzadeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Ahmad Reza Rasekhi
April-June 2012, 5(2):206-208
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96508  
  1 1,847 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Advantage of using a recombinant activated factor VII in traumatic haemorrhagic shock: The Bordeaux experience
Nicolas Morel, Cyrille Chabarttier, Laurent Merson, Agathe Lelias, Jean-Christophe Bernard, François Delaunay, Philippe Dabadie, Gérard Janvier
April-June 2012, 5(2):143-148
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96483  
Introduction: Several series of patient studies have been published on the use of rFVIIa in traumatic haemorrhagic shock, although to date no international recommendations have been produced. France does not currently recognise traumatic haemorrhagic shock as an appropriate indication for the use of rFVIIa. Materials and methods: In this retrospective study, we present our experience in the use of rFVIIa in traumatic haemorrhagic shock. Results: Twenty-seven patients treated with rFVIIa after a traumatic injury between May 2005 and December 2008 were included. Average age was 46 years old. Eighty per cent of patients were polytransfused. Mortality rate was 33%. Adjusted mortality rate, using the Boffard study criteria, was 8.3%. We observed significant differences between the group of patients who died and the group of survivors in pH, PT, Hb, ionised calcaemia, temperature and platelet count. We observed significant differences between the successful rFVIIa group and the failed rFVIIa group in pH, Hb, platelet count and ionised calcaemia. Ten patients had an rFVIIa injection only and 17 patients had an rFVIIa injection combined with a mechanical procedure to stop the bleeding. Two patients presented with thromboembolic complications. We observed a tendency to recommend an rFVIIa injection before radical treatment is applied. Conclusion: It seems to us legitimate to recommend earlier use of rFVIIa in cases of traumatic haemorrhagic shock in the context of haematological damage control combined with the use of an algorithm to predict the risk involved in polytransfusion and a more aggressive transfusion strategy.
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Correlation of C-reactive protein to severity of symptoms in acute influenza A infection
John P Haran, Selim Suner, Fenwick Gardiner
April-June 2012, 5(2):149-152
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96484  
Background: Currently there is no objective measure to determine disease severity in patients with acute influenza infection. During acute viral infections, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be elevated. Aim: To study the relationship between the symptoms of acute influenza A infection and correlate them with the level of inflammation as measured by serum CRP levels. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of adults presenting to an urban academic emergency department (ED), who had positive Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of the influenza A antigen. The subjects were excluded if they had immunosuppression, liver disease or were currently taking antiviral medication. A previously validated severity of symptom (SOS) score was calculated by asking the participants to record the severity of seven symptoms associated with influenza infection. The subjects had the serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels tested during their ED visit. Statistical Analysis: A linear regression model was used with CRP as a predictor of the SOS score. Pearson's product-moment coefficient was used to measure the dependence between the two quantities. Results: Thirty-two subjects were enrolled from January through March 2009, and of those, eight patients were excluded from the analysis, leaving 24 study subjects: 58% were women, of ages 18 to 63 years, with a mean age of 31 years (95% CI 25, 37). The mean SOS score was 14.1 ranging from 6 to 21 (95% CI 12.6, 26.4). The mean CRP score was 24.6 ranging from 0 to 64.7 (95% CI 15.8, 33.4). The correlation coefficient between the SOS score and CRP levels was r = 0.65 (P=0.00056). Conclusion: The severity of symptoms associated with acute influenza A infection correlateswith the serum CRP levels.
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SYMPOSIUM ON CURRENT CARE IN CRITICAL CLINICAL CONDITIONS
Cleistanthus collinus poisoning
Anugrah Chrispal
April-June 2012, 5(2):160-166
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96486  
Cleistanthus collinus, a toxic shrub, is used for deliberate self-harm in rural South India. MEDLINE (PUBMED) and Google were searched for published papers using the search/ MeSH terms "Cleistanthus collinus," "Euphorbiaceae," "Diphyllin," "Cleistanthin A," Cleistanthin B" and "Oduvanthalai." Non-indexed journals and abstracts were searched by tracing citations in published papers. The toxic principles in the leaf include arylnaphthalene lignan lactones - Diphyllin and its glycoside derivatives Cleistanthin A and B. Toxin effect in animal models demonstrate neuromuscular blockade with muscle weakness, distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) and type 2 respiratory failure with conflicting evidence of cardiac involvement. Studies suggest a likely inhibition of thiol/thiol enzymes by the lignan-lactones, depletion of glutathione and ATPases in tissues. V-type H+ ATPase inhibition in the renal tubule has been demonstrated. Mortality occurs in up to 40% of C. collinus poisonings. Human toxicity results in renal tubular dysfunction, commonly dRTA, with resultant hypokalemia and normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. Aggressive management of these metabolic derangements is crucial. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is seen in severe cases. Cardiac rhythm abnormalities have been demonstrated in a number of clinical studies, though the role of temporary cardiac pacemakers in reducing mortality is uncertain. Consumption of decoctions of C. collinus leaves, hypokalemia, renal failure, severe metabolic acidosis, ARDS and cardiac arrhythmias occur in severe poisonings and predict mortality. Further study is essential to delineate mechanisms of organ injury and interventions, including antidotes, which will reduce mortality.
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CASE REPORTS
Giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma
Ramon Vilallonga, Carlos Zafón, Raul Migone, Juan Antonio Baena
April-June 2012, 5(2):196-198
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96497  
Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not an uncommon endocrine disorder. However, acute primary hyperparathyroidism, or parathyroid crisis (PC), is a rare clinical entity characterized by life-threatening hypercalcemia of a sudden onset in patients with PHPT. We describe a patient with PC who presented with acute worsening of depressive symptoms, nausea and vomiting, and required emergency surgery. Serum calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone were elevated and serum phosphorus was low. An emergency hemithyroidectomy was performed because of none medical control of hypercalcemia. A giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma was diagnosed. PHTP can be a life-threatening situation for patients, requiring immediate surgical treatment. A giant intrathyroidal parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon cause of PC.
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Abdominal compartment syndrome from bleeding duodenal diverticulum
Vakhtang Tchantchaleishvili, Shawn S Groth, Jorge A Leon, William J Mohr
April-June 2012, 5(2):181-183
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96491  
Duodenal diverticuli are acquired false diverticuli of unknown etiology. Although mostly asymptomatic, they can occasionally cause upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, rarely with massive bleeding. In this report, we present (to the best of our knowledge) the first reported case of duodenal diverticular bleeding, causing abdominal compartment syndrome. Albeit a rare event, duodenal diverticular bleeding should be included in the differential diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. As with our case, a multidisciplinary approach to managing such patients is crucial.
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EXPERT COMMENTARY
Risk-benefit decision making in traumatic brain injury: Ratios, realities, results
Chee M Chan, Marya D Zilberberg
April-June 2012, 5(2):118-119
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96478  
  - 2,029 19
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Complete spinal cord transection from a stab wound with surgical precision
Jacky Yeung, Aftab Karim
April-June 2012, 5(2):204-204
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96503  
  - 3,760 14
Calcium channel blocker sustained release: Only three tablets can be life threatening
Mihaela Mihalcea, Audrey Geiger, Jacques Kopferschmitt, Pascal Bilbault
April-June 2012, 5(2):208-209
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96509  
  - 8,384 16
SYMPOSIUM ON CURRENT CARE IN CRITICAL CLINICAL CONDITIONS
Shock - A reappraisal: The holistic approach
Fabrizio Giuseppe Bonanno
April-June 2012, 5(2):167-177
DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.96487  
Shock as reaction to life-threatening condition needs to be reclassified in a timely and more scientific synopsis. It is not possible or beneficial any longer to avoid a holistic approach in critical illness. Semantics of critical illness has often been unfriendly in the literature and a simplification with the elimination of conceptual pleonasms and misnomers under the exclusive light of physiology and physiopathology would be advantageous. Speaking one language to describe the same phenomenon worldwide is essential for understanding; moreover, it increases focus on characterization and significance of the phenomena.
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