Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 50-53

Caval aortic index: A novel tool for fluid assessment in obstetric emergencies


1 Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, Aster Medcity, Cochin, Kerala, India
2 Department of Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anesthesiology, Jubilee Mission Medical College and Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Jayaraj Mymbilly Balakrishnan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal - 576 104, Karnataka
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_136_18

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Background: Uncorrected maternal hypotension occurring during obstetric emergencies may result in maternal and fetal morbidity. Fluid status of the pregnant mother is a major variable which affects the maternal hemodynamics during patient management, and there is no objective assessment tool for the same. A relatively new sonographic parameter, the inferior vena cava aorta (IVC/Ao) diameter index or caval aortic index, showed promise in this regard, and its application was studied in obstetric patients. Methodology: A prospective analytical study was conducted involving 50 pregnant and 50 nonpregnant women of reproductive age group. Using both subxiphoid and transhepatic views, their normal fasting caval aortic indices were determined from the ratio of mean IVC diameter to the mean aortic diameter. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out accordingly. Results: Normal IVC/Ao diameter index for nonpregnant healthy women of reproductive age was 1.11 ± 0.29 in the subxiphoid view and 1.21 ± 0.33 in the transhepatic view. The difference between the two views was not statistically significant. IVC/Ao diameter index for a normal term pregnant woman was 1.03 ± 0.26, and term pregnancy does not significantly cause variation in the index. Conclusions: Caval aortic index is a useful noninvasive tool to assess volume status and guide fluid management in pregnant women presenting to the emergency department, and the transhepatic view is comparable to the traditional subxiphoid view for the measurement of the same.


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