Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 288-292

Our experience with management and outcome of isolated traumatic brain injury patients admitted in Intensive Care Unit


1 Department of Critical Care Medicine, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Sher-I-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Arif Hussain Sarmast
Dalipora, Kawadara, Srinagar - 190 002, Jammu and Kashmir
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_34_17

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Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. Commonly used predictors of outcome both individually or in combination include age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, pupillary reactivity, early hypoxia, and hypotension. Most of the studies previously done to examine risk factors for mortality in severe TBI were done in the setting of polytrauma. Aims and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to do an in-depth analysis of various factors associated with the management and outcome of patients with isolated TBI admitted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Materials and Methods: A total of seventy adult patients who were admitted to Intensive Critical Care Unit (ICU) with isolated TBI were selected during a 12-month period from January 2016 to December 2016. This is a prospective analytical study and parameters studied included age, sex, cause of admission classified by type of trauma, premorbid functional status, acute and chronic comorbidities, brain noncontrast computed tomography scan data, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), hemodynamic status, respiratory status, and mechanical ventilation, blood gases, serum electrolytes, serum glucose, hemoglobin, leukocyte and platelet counts, renal function, and urinary output. Results: The study population consisted of 46 (65.7%) males and 24 (34.2%) females. The mean age was 35.5 years (range, 18–65 years). The most common mode of trauma was road traffic accident (43.6%) followed by fall from height (35.7%). Statistically insignificant relationship (P < 0.05) was seen with sex and mode of injury among survivors and nonsurvivors; however, 61.9% of patients with age ≥40 years died (P < 0.005). Among clinical parameters at admission to ICU, low GCS, hypotension (mean arterial pressure ≤80 mmHg), hypoxia (pO2 ≤60 mmHg, spO2 ≤90 mmHg), and nonreacting pupils were significantly associated with increased mortality (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Isolated TBI still continues to have a good amount of morbidity and mortality which perhaps can be reduced by strict adherence to guidelines of management.


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