Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 170-174

Patterns of zygomatic complex bone fracture in Saudi Arabia

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Najran Regional Specialty Dental Centre, Najran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Riyadh Colleges of Dentistry and Pharmacy, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramat Oyebunmi Braimah
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Najran Regional Specialty Dental Centre, Medical City Complex, Najran
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_12_18

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Introduction: Zygomatic bone (ZB), also known as the cheekbone, articulates with the maxilla, temporal sphenoid, and the frontal bones. It forms the prominence of the cheek and part of the orbit, and because of its prominence, it is susceptible to trauma. The aim of this study was to present the pattern of ZB fracture in a country in the Middle East. Patients and Methods: The medical records of all trauma cases admitted to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Ward, Riyadh Dental Centre, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were reviewed and all cases with ZB fractures were included in this study from December 2002 to December 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The results were presented as simple frequencies and percentages. Results: A total of 1487 patients had maxillofacial trauma and 306 cases were diagnosed with ZB fractures during the study. There were 271 (88.6%) males and 35 (11.4%) females with male: female ratio of 7.7:1. Age group of 21–30 years has the highest number of fracture cases (133 [43.5%]). Road traffic accident (RTA) remained the leading etiology of zygomatic complex fracture (ZMCF; 221 [72.2%]). August has been observed to be associated with the highest cases of ZMCF (40 [13.1%]). The years 2005 and 2006 recorded the highest frequency of ZMCF cases (46 [15.0%] and 44 [14.4%], respectively). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that RTA is the leading cause of ZB fractures followed by assaults. The most commonly fractured site was the zygomaticomaxillary. Proper road traffic regulation is paramount to help reduce maxillofacial trauma.

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