Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-87

Guiding management in severe trauma: Reviewing factors predicting outcome in vastly injured patients


1 Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Greece
2 Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Emmanuel Chrysos
Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Crete, GR-71110, Heraklion Crete
Greece
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/JETS.JETS_74_17

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Trauma is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, with road traffic collisions, suicides, and homicides accounting for the majority of injury-related deaths. Since trauma mainly affects young age groups, it is recognized as a serious social and economic threat, as annually, almost 16,000 posttrauma individuals are expected to lose their lives and many more to end up disabled. The purpose of this research is to summarize current knowledge on factors predicting outcome – specifically mortality risk – in severely injured patients. Development of this review was mainly based on the systematic search of PubMed medical library, Cochrane database, and advanced trauma life support Guiding Manuals. The research was based on publications between 1994 and 2016. Although hypovolemic, obstructive, cardiogenic, and septic shock can all be seen in multi-trauma patients, hemorrhage-induced shock is by far the most common cause of shock. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on factors predicting outcome – more specifically mortality risk – in severely injured patients. The main mortality-predicting factors in trauma patients are those associated with basic human physiology and tissue perfusion status, coagulation adequacy, and resuscitation requirements. On the contrary, advanced age and the presence of comorbidities predispose patients to a poor outcome because of the loss of physiological reserves. Trauma resuscitation teams considering mortality prediction factors can not only guide resuscitation but also identify patients with high mortality risk who were previously considered less severely injured.


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