Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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LETTERS TO EDITOR  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 89-90
Multiple focal vascular injury in head trauma


Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo, Brazil

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Date of Submission10-Jun-2015
Date of Acceptance07-Jul-2015
Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2016
 

How to cite this article:
de Andrade AF, Hayashi CY, Teixeira MJ, Paiva WS. Multiple focal vascular injury in head trauma. J Emerg Trauma Shock 2016;9:89-90

How to cite this URL:
de Andrade AF, Hayashi CY, Teixeira MJ, Paiva WS. Multiple focal vascular injury in head trauma. J Emerg Trauma Shock [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Sep 23];9:89-90. Available from: http://www.onlinejets.org/text.asp?2016/9/2/89/179462


Dear Editor,

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a global health problem, exerting great socioeconomic impact worldwide.[1],[2] Despite the socioeducational programs to prevent accidents, TBI is still the main responsible for mortality and neurological sequelae among young people.[1] Among traumatic injuries, there is a very rare brain lesion. Usually, a postmortem diagnosis called multiple focal vascular injury (MFVI). Tomlinson [3] described this type of injury in cases of head injury with instant death and radiology record these injuries are very rare.


   Case Report Top


A 20-year-old man admitted in our emergency department after a car accident, brought by air rescue service. The patient had been intubated at the trauma scene and was assisted according to ATLS protocol. He was hemodynamically stable, presenting six points in Glasgow Coma Scale, with miotic pupils. A computed tomography (CT) scan [Figure 1] showed diffuse hemorrhagic points in the white matter suggestive of MFVI. He underwent to intracranial pressure monitoring. Patient evolved with refractory intracranial hypertension despite all intensive care measures, presenting brain death after 3 days. An autopsy confirmed MFVI [Figure 2].
Figure 1: (A) Head computed tomography scan showing diffuse hemorrhagic points in the white matter suggestive of multiple focal vascular injury after emergency department admission. (B) Head computed tomography scan performed 2 days after trauma showing brain hypoperfusion signs

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Figure 2: (A) Image in autopsy with a segment of the brain showing multiple micro-.hemorrhagic points in the frontal lobe. (B) Magnified view showing diffuse hemorrhagic foci in the white matter

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   Discussion Top


This is a rare case with specific pathological diagnosis. These lesions were associated with microhemorrhages in the white matter and brainstem.[3],[4] Tomlinson [1] suggested that intracerebral small vessels are torn diffusely. This is more severe traumatic injury than diffuse axonal injury,[5] usually observed in autopsy series,[4] radiological recording are uncommon. This case is interesting because it allowed monitoring the clinical course with intracranial hypertension, as well as analyze the image pattern in CT.

 
   References Top

1.
Cole TB. Global road safety crisis remedy sought: 1.2 million killed, 50 million injured annually. JAMA 2004;291:2531-2.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.
Paiva WS, Saad F, Carvalhal ES, De Amorim RL, Figuereido EG, Teeixera MJ. Transorbital stab penetrating brain injury. Report of a case. Ann Ital Chir 2009;80:463-5.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Tomlinson BE. Brain-stem lesions after head injury. J Clin Pathol Suppl (R Coll Pathol) 1970;4:154-65.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.
Onaya M. Neuropathological investigation of cerebral white matter lesions caused by closed head injury. Neuropathology 2002;22:243-51.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Andrade AF, Paiva WS, Amorim RL, Figueiredo EG, Rusafa Neto E, Teixeira MJ. The pathophysiological mechanisms following traumatic brain injury. Rev Assoc Med Bras 2009;55:75-81.  Back to cited text no. 5
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Wellingson Silva Paiva
Division of Neurosurgery, University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Sao Paulo
Brazil
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.179462

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