Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 180-185

Coagulopathy as prognostic marker in acute traumatic brain injury


1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Asok K Mukhopadhyay
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi
India
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Source of Support: This project was funded by ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research), Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-2700.115332

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Context: Coagulopathy frequently occurs following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and usually occurs 6-72 hour post-trauma. The incidence and the probable risk factors for development of coagulopathy and poor outcome following TBI are largely unknown and vary considerably. Aims: To assess the incidence and probable risk factors for development of coagulopathy and to identify the risk factors for poor outcome in terms of median survival time following TBI. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study over two years, patients of isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (GCS≤12) admitted to trauma center had coagulation profile (PT, APTT, thrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimer), arterial lactate and ABG analysis done on day of admission and on day three. Coagulopathy was defined as prothrombin time (PT) or/and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) more than 1.5 times the normal control. Incidence of in-hospital mortality was assessed in all cases. Statistical Analysis: A stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for coagulopathy and mortality in these patients. Results: A total of 208 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 32 ± 12 years and mean GCS was 7.1 ± 2.8. Coagulopathy was present in 46% ( n = 96) of patients. Risk factors for development of coagulopathy were found out to be severity of head injury (OR: 2.81), elevated D-dimer (OR: 3.43), low hemoglobin (OR: 3.13), and effaced cisterns in the CT scan (OR: 2.72). Presence of coagulopathy (OR: 2.97) and severity of head injury (OR: 5.70) strongly predicted poor outcome, and were associated with a decreased median survival time. Conclusions: There is a high incidence of coagulopathy following TBI. The presence of coagulopathy as well as of severity of TBI are strong predictors of in-hospital mortality in these patients.


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